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L Valine
Overview
L-Valine is an essential amino acid that is necessary for smooth nervous system and cognitive functioning. It is one of the three Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), the other two being L-leucine and L-Isoleucine. L-Valine cannot be produced by the body and must be ingested through foods or supplements. Amino acids are essential for everyday body functions, as well as for maintaining muscle and regulation of the immune system. L-Valine is not processed by the liver; it is taken up by muscles.

These amino acids contribute to the functioning of everyday life. The BCAAs are typically formulated together to provide maximum support to the body. L-Valine is derived from animal and vegetable protein.

L-Valine is involved in glucose metabolism, protein synthesis, and the regulation of the immune system. As with the other BCAAs, L-valine could be involved in muscle growth and tissue repair, and stimulant activity. There is some evidence that L-valine is involved in muscle metabolism, the maintenance of nitrogen balance in the body, and exercise recovery time.

What is L-Valine?
L-Valine is an essential amino acid that is required for the smooth functioning of the nervous system and the brain. It is one of the three Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), together with the other two being L-leucine and L-Isoleucine. L-Valine cannot be manufactured by the body and must be taken through food or supplements. Amino acids are of paramount importance for everyday body functions, as well as for maintaining muscle and regulation of the immune system. L-Valine is not processed by the liver; rather, it is actively taken up by muscles. Since Valine and the other BCAAs can escape liver metabolism as they are metabolized in the muscle as opposed to the liver, this means they can directly and significantly influence muscle-protein metabolism and thus improve disorders of the muscles and help it recover faster from intense activity. Aside from this, Valine also influences brain uptake of other neurotransmitter precursors (tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Some natural sources and food products that contain L-Valine include meat, leafy vegetables, mushrooms, peanuts, soy protein, kidney beans, poultry and milk.

Valine is an amino acid obtained by hydrolysis of proteins and was first derived by the German chemist Emil Fischer in 1901 from casein. Together with Isoleucine and leucine, Valine is found in high concentration in the muscles and the three BCAAs constitute about 70 to 80 percent of the amino acids in the body proteins. As such, their importance in the formation and maintenance of structural and functional integrity in humans is immeasurable. Supplemental valine should always be combined with Isoleucine and leucine at a milligram ratio of 1:1:2 respectively. Aside from promoting normal growth, repairing tissues, regulating blood sugar, and providing the body with energy, Valine also helps stimulate the central nervous system to ensure proper mental functioning.

Valine helps prevent catabolism or the breakdown of muscle by supplying the muscles with extra glucose for energy production during intense physical activity. Valine also helps eliminate potentially toxic excess nitrogen from the liver, and is beneficial in transporting nitrogen to other parts of the boy where it is needed. Because of this Valine may help treat liver and gallbladder disease, as well as alleviate the damage brought to these tissues and organs caused by alcoholism and drug abuse. Valine may also help treat or even reverse hepatic encephalopathy, or alcohol-related brain damage. People who train or exercise frequently, have a low-protein diet, or are seriously trying to build muscle mass should consider valine supplementation. Although Valine is available in stand-alone supplemental form, it should always be taken together with the other two branched-chain amino acids, Isoleucine and leucine. To make the most out of this supplement, again as mentioned above the perfect balance is at one part L-Valine for every two parts L-Leucine and for every one part of L-Isoleucine.

BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) - L-leucine, L-Isoleucine and L-valine - are undoubtedly the single most important group of amino acids for just about anyone, from world champion athletes to regular people. The body uses these to promote healing of injured tissues, to speed up recovery, and to protect against muscle tissue breakdown (catabolism) during exercise. BCAAs are one third of all the protein in muscles, therefore extremely important for developing and building muscles. Studies have shown BCAA to be helpful in other areas as well, due to what each ingredient does in its own right. For example, Leucine is necessary for wound recovery to skin and bones as well as helps protect muscles, Valine helps promote or maintain nitrogen balance (essential for muscular development), and Isoleucine helps boost energy and is necessary for forming hemoglobin.

In the United States, L-Valine is sold as a dietary supplement, and dietary supplements are regulated as foods, not drugs. Therefore, premarket evaluation and approval by the Food and Drug Administration are not required unless claims are made for specific disease prevention or treatment.

Where it is found
The best food sources of L-valine are dairy products, grain, and mushrooms.

Benefits / uses
arw Burns fuel within cells to promote muscle recovery
arw Speeds wound healing
arw Assists in new tissue growth
arw Increases the bioavailability of complex carbohydrates
arw Assists in muscle building activity
arw With L-Isoleucine, helps promote lean muscle growth

Valine is needed for muscle metabolism, tissue repair, and the maintenance of a proper nitrogen balance in the body. As one of the branched-chain amino acids found in high concentrations in muscle tissue, this means it can be used as an energy source by muscles, and in doing so preserves the use of glucose. Also, it may prove useful in treating liver and gallbladder disease, and it can correct the type of severe amino acid deficiencies that can be caused by drug addiction. It may also be beneficial to help treat or reverse the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, or alcohol related brain damage, as well as degenerative neurological conditions. L-Valine is typically taken (with the other BCAAs) by weight lifters and performance athletes wanting to reduce fat and maximize muscle mass. Blood levels of L-Valine will fall significantly after strenuous exercise and will stay low until complete recovery. Supplementation with L-Valine one hour before strenuous workouts can reduce the recovery time by increasing muscle protein synthesis and counteract catabolic processes.

Valine is often used by bodybuilders, (in conjunction with leucine and Isoleucine), to promote muscle growth, tissue repair and as an energizer, although more studies are still needed to support these claims. Studies have however shown that these three substances might help restore muscle mass in people suffering from liver disease, injuries, or those who have undergone surgery. For this to work though, the three branched-chain amino acids should always be taken in balance at two parts L-Leucine for every one parts L-Valine and for every one part of L-Isoleucine. Other benefits of L-Valine include improvement in insomnia and nervousness. It has also been demonstrated to improve the regulation of the immune system, and is effective as an appetite suppressant. Valine also plays an integral role in the detoxification of ammonia and works along with alpha-ketoglutarate. It may be a vital amino acid to prevent muscle wasting in diabetes and in the prevention of ammonia toxicity in individuals who belong to the older-aged group who are hospitalized. As beneficial as it is in helping treat certain illnesses, perhaps the biggest benefits are those experienced by athletes who perform long distance sports and bodybuilding. This is because L-Valine is essential for muscle tissue repair and muscle metabolism, and also increases exercise endurance.

Supplementing with L-leucine, L-Isoleucine and L-valine, collectively known as BCAAs, can feed your body so that it doesn’t eat your own tissue. Aside from being required by the body, BCAAs can also be used to regenerate the skin of burn victims, because they aid in repair, growth, and development of muscle tissue, and to help treat kidney failure and liver disease as well. The combination of these three essential amino acids - L-leucine, L-Isoleucine and L-valine makes up approximately 33% of skeletal muscle in the human body, and plays an important role in protein synthesis. BCAAs are currently used primarily for supplementation among strength athletes because it promotes protein synthesis in muscle. When taken during training, BCAAs have been shown to increase both growth hormone (GH) and insulin, thus increasing anabolism and anti-catabolism. Also, unlike other amino acids, BCAAs are used to provide energy and they have been shown to decrease post-workout soreness, which translates to faster recovery times even after intense and grueling trainings.

Since BCAAs are so crucial for the proper functioning of muscle tissue, they are very popular with endurance athletes, body builders, and others looking to simply stay healthy. BCAAs are metabolized in the muscle as opposed to the liver, and because of this many body builders and athletes use BCAA supplements while undergoing intense exercise. Even light exercise can cause BCAAs levels to drop quickly which leads to muscle breakdown (catabolism), fatigue, and a drop in testosterone levels. If you are in a building phase in any exercise routine or if you train for long periods of time, BCAAs are a good choice for you to ensure you do not use or burn the muscle you’ve worked so hard to build to get the energy you require in your strenuous activities.

Doses
The typically recommended dose for L-Valine varies upon individual needs between 1 gram and 2 grams per single dose taken 1 or 2 times per day for a total combined daily dose of between 1 grams and 4 grams. One level teaspoon (5 cc) of L-Valine will be equivalent to about 3 grams. One half level tablespoons will supply approximately 4946 mg milligrams, or just about 5 grams for the bulk density of this L-Valine powder. Again, keep in mind that to get the most out of supplementing with L-Valine, it should be dosed at two parts L-Leucine for every one parts L-Valine and for every one part of L-Isoleucine.

Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
An excessively high intake of valine may cause a skin crawling sensation and even hallucinations. Too much valine in the diet can also disrupt liver and kidney function by increasing the amount of ammonia in the body. People with impaired liver or kidney function should not take Isoleucine without first consulting a physician, as large doses of amino acids may aggravate these.

Research studies / References
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Dawson, R.M.C., et al., Data for Biochemical Research, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1959.

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Weast, Robert C., ed. (1981), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (62nd ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, p. C-569, ISBN 0-8493-0462-8.

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"Nomenclature and symbolism for amino acids and peptides (IUPAC-IUB Recommendations 1983)", Pure Appl. Chem. 56 (5): 595-624, 1984, doi:10.1351/pac198456050595.

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Lehninger, Albert L.; Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2000), Principles of Biochemistry (3rd ed.), New York: W. H. Freeman, ISBN 1-57259-153-6.

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Marvel, C. S. (1940), "dl-Valine", Org. Synth. 20: 106, http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=CV3P0848; Coll. Vol. 3: 848.