SUPPORT : 09821117009
paytm
 09821117009
Shopping Cart
Main Menu
Home > Health Library > Vanadium
Vanadium
Overview
Vanadium is a mineral. It was named for the Norse goddess of beauty, Vanadis, because of its beautiful colors. Vanadium supplements are used as medicine.
Vanadium is used for treating diabetes, low blood sugar, high cholesterol, heart disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, a form of “tired blood” (anemia), and water retention (edema); for improving athletic performance in weight training; and for preventing cancer.
There is evidence that vanadium might act like insulin, or help to increase the effects of insulin.

What is Vanadium ?
Vanadium may be a boon to normalizing glucose levels, enhancing athletic performance, and lowering blood pressure. However, beneficial effects have yet to be conclusively proven in human studies.

Vanadium, which is known as V on the periodic table, is a trace mineral that is essential for maintaining a healthy body. Vanadium is a kind opposite of molybdenum, which is another trace mineral that it works in tandem with. Together, the two minerals help keep each other in check and provide several health benefits to humans.


One of the most common uses of vanadium is as a supplement for body builders. The claim is not widely accepted, however, and there also aren't any scientific studies to back the claim up, so whether or not vanadium provides health benefits to body builders remains to be seen.

Vanadium has also been tested as a treatment for diabetes. In many animal studies as well as a few human studies, it has been found that vanadium helped to reduce blood sugar levels and also increased insulin sensitivity in those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

There have also been animal studies which show that vanadium can lower blood pressure. This is a promising lead for future research. There might also be some potential health benefits provided by vanadium for those with bipolar disorder. Researchers believe that when people are in the manic state of bipolar disorder their vanadium levels are significantly elevated, which means that a diet which reduces vanadium intake may actually be beneficial to those with bipolar disorder.


Where it is found
The body absorbs only about 5% of the vanadium in food. The best sources are mushrooms, shellfish, black pepper, parsley, dill weed, beer, wine, grain and grain products, and artificially sweetened drinks.
Vanadium exists in several forms, including vandal sulfate and vanadate. Vanadyl sulfate is most commonly found in nutritional supplements


See product related video:
video icon Vanadium and Diabetes (2.02)
video icon Vanadium - Albion  (4.08)
video icon Vanadium  (4.14)
Product related PDF file
Vanadium & Diabetic
Determination Of Vanadium
Vanadium Bisphenolato as Anticancer Agents
Vanadium improves type diabetes
Vanadium's Role in Diabetes

Benefits / uses

Diabetes
Several animal studies and a few very small human studies suggest that vanadium may reduce blood sugar levels and improve sensitivity to insulin in people with type 2 diabetes. In one study of people with type 2 diabetes, vanadium also lowered their total and LDL ("bad") cholesterol.

Body Building/Performance Enhancement
Vanadium is sometimes touted as a sports supplement, but there is no evidence that it works to enhance performance.

Cancer
Animal studies suggest that vanadium may protect against colon cancer. More research is needed.

Doses
Pediatric
You should not give vanadium supplements to a child.

Adult
Scientists don't know how much vanadium people need, but 10 - 30 mcg per day should be plenty. The average diet provides 6 - 18 mcg.
Limit daily dosages to no more than 1.8 mg. Higher doses may be toxic and should be avoided.


Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
Common side effects include stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and gas.
Some animals given vanadate supplements have developed anemia, low white blood cell counts (the cells that help to fight infection), and high cholesterol. People with high cholesterol, anemia, an infection, or any health problem causing a low white blood cell count (such as HIV) should not take vanadium without first talking to their doctor.

Because vanadium may lower blood sugar levels, people with diabetes who take medication to control blood sugar could be at risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) if they take vanadium.

People with kidney disease should not take vanadium.
High doses of vanadium (more than 1.8 mg per day) may cause liver or kidney damage.

Interactions:
If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use vanadium without first talking to your health care provider.
Anticoagulant or antiplatelet dugs (blood thinners) -- Vanadium may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with these drugs:
Clopidogrel (Plavix)
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Heparin
Aspirin
Drugs for diabetes -- Because vanadium may lower blood sugar levels, people who also take medications to lower blood sugar could be at risk of developing hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

When To Take/Types To Take
Vanadium supplements are to be taken with meals. It is available in several forms including metavanadate, orthovanadate, vanadiumand vanadyl sulphate.

Research studies / References
arw Badmaev V, Prakash S, Majeed M.
Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes.
J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Jun;5(3):273-91. Review.
PMID: 10381252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Becker DJ, Ongemba LN, Henquin JC.
Comparison of the effects of various vanadium salts on glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Aug 1;260(2-3):169-75.
PMID: 7988641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Beliaeva NF, Gorodetskii VK, Tochilkin AI, Golubev MA, Semenova NV, Kovel'man IR.
Vanadium compounds--a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus
Vopr Med Khim. 2000 Jul-Aug;46(4):344-60. Review. Russian.
PMID: 11075417 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Bhanot S, Girn J, Poucheret P, McNeill JH.
Effects of bis(maltolato) oxovanadium (IV) on protein serine kinases in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Dec;202(1-2):131-40.
PMID: 10706003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Bhanot S, McNeill JH.
Vanadyl sulfate lowers plasma insulin and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1994 Nov;24(5):625-32.
PMID: 7960024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Bhanot S, Bryer-Ash M, Cheung A, McNeill JH.
Bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) attenuates hyperinsulinemia and hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Diabetes. 1994 Jul;43(7):857-61
PMID: 8013747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Bhanot S, McNeill JH, Bryer-Ash M.
Vanadyl sulfate prevents fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and hypertension in rats.
Hypertension. 1994 Mar;23(3):308-12.
PMID: 8125555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Boden G, Chen X, Ruiz J, van Rossum GD, Turco S.
Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Metabolism. 1996 Sep;45(9):1130-5.
PMID: 8781301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Bosia S, Burdino E, Grignolo F, Ugazio G.
Protective effect on nephropathy and on cataract in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat of the vanadium-lazaroid combination
G Ital Med Lav. 1995 Jan-Nov;17(1-6):71-5. Italian.
PMID: 8991828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Brand RM, Hamel FG.
Transdermally delivered peroxovanadium can lower blood glucose levels in diabetic rats.
Int J Pharm. 1999 Jun 25;183(2):117-23.
PMID: 10361162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Cam MC, Rodrigues B, McNeill JH.
Distinct glucose lowering and beta cell protective effects of vanadium and food restriction in streptozotocin-diabetes.
Eur J Endocrinol. 1999 Nov;141(5):546-54.
PMID: 10576774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Cam MC, Li WM, McNeill JH.
Partial preservation of pancreatic beta-cells by vanadium: evidence for long-term amelioration of diabetes.
Metabolism. 1997 Jul;46(7):769-78.
PMID: 9225830 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Cam MC, Faun J, McNeill JH.
Concentration-dependent glucose-lowering effects of oral vanadyl are maintained following treatment withdrawal in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Metabolism. 1995 Mar;44(3):332-9.
PMID: 7885278 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Cam MC, Cros GH, Serrano JJ, Lazaro R, McNeill JH.
In vivo antidiabetic actions of naglivan, an organic vanadyl compound in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1993 May;20(2):111-21.
PMID: 8375263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Cam MC, Pederson RA, Brownsey RW, McNeill JH.
Long-term effectiveness of oral vanadyl sulphate in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Diabetologia. 1993 Mar;36(3):218-24.
PMID: 8462769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw

Crans DC.
Chemistry and insulin-like properties of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) compounds.
J Inorg Biochem. 2000 May 30;80(1-2):123-31. Review.
PMID: 10885472 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



arw Cros GH, Cam MC, Serrano JJ, Ribes G, McNeill JH.
Long-term antidiabetic activity of vanadyl after treatment withdrawal: restoration of insulin secretion?
Mol Cell Biochem. 1995 Dec 6-20;153(1-2):191-5. Review.
PMID: 8927038 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Cros G, Mongold JJ, Serrano JJ, Ramanadham S, McNeill JH.
Vanadium and diabetes
Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 1991;:193-201. Review. French.
PMID: 1886330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Cusi K, Cukier S, DeFronzo RA, Torres M, Puchulu FM, Redondo JC.
Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1410-7.
PMID: 11238540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Dai S, Vera E, McNeill JH.
Lack of haematological effect of oral vanadium treatment in rats.
Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Apr;76(4):263-8.
PMID: 7617557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Dai S, Thompson KH, McNeill JH.
One-year treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with vanadyl sulphate.
Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994 Feb;74(2):101-9.
PMID: 8190697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Dehghani GA, Sotoodeh M, Omrani GR.
Trophic effects of vanadium on beta-cells of STZ-induced insulin dependent diabetic rats & evidence for long-term relief of diabetes mellitus.
Indian J Med Res. 1999 Aug;110:70-5.
PMID: 10573657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Deville de Periere D, Poucheret P, Egea JC, Gross R, Masiello P, Cros G, Serrano JJ, Ribes G.
Vanadyl treatment normalizes submandibular salivary gland insulin-like immunoreactivity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Horm Metab Res. 1998 Mar;30(3):150-2.
PMID: 9566858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Ding W, Hasegawa T, Hosaka H, Peng D, Takahashi K, Seko Y.
Effect of long-term treatment with vanadate in drinking water on KK mice with genetic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2001 May;80(2):159-74.
PMID: 11437181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Evangelou AM.
Vanadium in cancer treatment.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002 Jun;42(3):249-65.
PMID: 12050018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Goldwaser I, Gefel D, Gershonov E, Fridkin M, Shechter Y.
Insulin-like effects of vanadium: basic and clinical implications.
J Inorg Biochem. 2000 May 30;80(1-2):21-5. Review.
PMID: 10885459 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Hopfner RL, Misurski D, Wilson TW, McNeill JR, Gopalakrishnan V.
Insulin and vanadate restore decreased plasma endothelin concentrations and exaggerated vascular responses to normal in the streptozotocin diabetic rat.
Diabetologia. 1998 Oct;41(10):1233-40.
PMID: 9794113 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Hopkins LL Jr, Mohr HE.
Proceedings: Vanadium as an essential nutrient.
Fed Proc. 1974 Jun;33(6):1773-5.
PMID: 4827529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Krosniak M, Zachwieja Z, Filipek B, Zygmunt M, Grybos R.
Effect of oxovanadium(IV) complexes on nondiabetic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2001 Dec;334(12):388-92.
PMID: 11852534 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Li H, Wei Q.
Conformation changes in brain calcineurin in diabetic rats with or without treatment with vanadyl sulfate.
IUBMB Life. 2001 Jun;51(6):373-6.
PMID: 11758805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Li SH, McNeill JH.
In vivo effects of vanadium on GLUT4 translocation in cardiac tissue of STZ-diabetic rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Jan;217(1-2):121-9.
PMID: 11269655 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Mancinella A.
Vanadium, an indispensable trace element in living organisms. Current data on biochemical, metabolic levels and therapeutic doses
Clin Ter. 1993 Mar;142(3):251-5. Review. Italian.
PMID: 8482065 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Marzban L, Rahimian R, Brownsey RW, McNeill JH.
Mechanisms by which bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) normalizes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase expression in streptozotocin-diabetic rats in vivo.
Endocrinology. 2002 Dec;143(12):4636-45.
PMID: 12446591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Matsuda M, Mandarino L, DeFronzo RA.
Synergistic interaction of magnesium and vanadate on glucose metabolism in diabetic rats.
Metabolism. 1999 Jun;48(6):725-31.
PMID: 10381146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw McNeill JH, Yuen VG, Dai S, Orvig C.
Increased potency of vanadium using organic ligands.
Mol Cell Biochem. 1995 Dec 6-20;153(1-2):175-80. Review.
PMID: 8927036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Nielsen FH.
Vanadium in mammalian physiology and nutrition.
Met Ions Biol Syst. 1995;31:543-73. Review.
PMID: 8564817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw McNeill JH, Battell M, Cam M, Dai S, Thompson K, Yuen V.
Oral vanadium and lowering of blood glucose.
Diabetes. 1994 Oct;43(10):1268-70.
PMID: 7926299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw McNeill JH, Yuen VG, Hoveyda HR, Orvig C.
Bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) is a potent insulin mimic.
J Med Chem. 1992 Apr 17;35(8):1489-91.
PMID: 1573642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw McNeill JH, Delgatty HL, Battell ML.
Insulinlike effects of sodium selenate in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.
Diabetes. 1991 Dec;40(12):1675-8.
PMID: 1756907 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Mohammad A, Sharma V, McNeill JH.
Vanadium increases GLUT4 in diabetic rat skeletal muscle.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Apr;233(1-2):139-43.
PMID: 12083368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Mohammad A, Wang J, McNeill JH.
Bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) inhibits the activity of PTP1B in Zucker rat skeletal muscle in vivo.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Jan;229(1-2):125-8.
PMID: 11936837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Orvig C, Thompson KH, Battell M, McNeill JH.
Vanadium compounds as insulin mimics.
Met Ions Biol Syst. 1995;31:575-94. Review.
PMID: 8564818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Pederson RA, Ramanadham S, Buchan AM, McNeill JH.
Long-term effects of vanadyl treatment on streptozocin-induced diabetes in rats.
Diabetes. 1989 Nov;38(11):1390-5.
PMID: 2695373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Pepato MT, Magnani MR, Kettelhut IC, Brunetti IL.
Effect of oral vanadyl sulfate treatment on serum enzymes and lipids of streptozotocin-diabetic young rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Aug;198(1-2):157-61.
PMID: 10497891 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Poucheret P, Verma S, Grynpas MD, McNeill JH.
Vanadium and diabetes.
Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Nov;188(1-2):73-80. Review.
PMID: 9823013 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Poucheret P, Gross R, Cadene A, Manteguetti M, Serrano JJ, Ribes G, Cros G.
Long-term correction of STZ-diabetic rats after short-term i.p. VOSO4 treatment: persistence of insulin secreting capacities assessed by isolated pancreas studies.
Mol Cell Biochem. 1995 Dec 6-20;153(1-2):197-204.
PMID: 8927039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Ramanadham S, Mongold JJ, Brownsey RW, Cros GH, McNeill JH.
Oral vanadyl sulfate in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats.
Am J Physiol. 1989 Sep;257(3 Pt 2):H904-11.
PMID: 2675634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Sakurai H, Inohara T, Adachi Y, Kawabe K, Yasui H, Takada J.
A new candidate for insulinomimetic vanadium complex: synergism of oxovanadium(IV)porphyrin and sodium ascorbate.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Mar 8;14(5):1093-6.
PMID: 14980642 [PubMed - in process]


arw Sakurai H, Yasui H, Adachi Y.
The therapeutic potential of insulin-mimetic vanadium complexes.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Jul;12(7):1189-203. Review.
PMID: 12831353 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
arw Sakurai H.
A new concept: the use of vanadium complexes in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Chem Rec. 2002;2(4):237-48. Review.
PMID: 12203906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Sakurai H, Tsuchiya K, Nukatsuka M, Sofue M, Kawada J.
Insulin-like effect of vanadyl ion on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
J Endocrinol. 1990 Sep;126(3):451-9.
PMID: 2170556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Sekar N, Li J, Shechter Y.
Vanadium salts as insulin substitutes: mechanisms of action, a scientific and therapeutic tool in diabetes mellitus research.
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 1996 Dec;31(5-6):339-59. Review.
PMID: 8994801 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Semiz S, McNeill JH.
Oral treatment with vanadium of Zucker fatty rats activates muscle glycogen synthesis and insulin-stimulated protein phosphatase-1 activity.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Jul;236(1-2):123-31.
PMID: 12190110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Shafrir E, Spielman S, Nachliel I, Khamaisi M, Bar-On H, Ziv E.
Treatment of diabetes with vanadium salts: general overview and amelioration of nutritionally induced diabetes in the Psammomys obesus gerbil.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2001 Jan-Feb;17(1):55-66. Review.
PMID: 11241892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Shinde UA, Mehta AA, Goyal RK.
Effect of chronic treatment with Bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) in rat model of non-insulin-dependent-diabetes.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Sep;39(9):864-70.
PMID: 11831366 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Thompson KH, McNeill JH, Orvig C.
Vanadium compounds as insulin mimics.
Chem Rev. 1999 Sep 8;99(9):2561-72.
PMID: 11749492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


arw Thompson KH.
Vanadium and diabetes.
Biofactors. 1999;10(1):43-51. Review.
PMID: 10475589 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Tsunajima T, Tatsuki R, Satoh K, Yamamoto A, Hoshi K, Ichihara K.
Improvement of impaired glucose tolerance by oral administration of vanadyl sulfate by gavage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1997 Nov;98(2):190-200.
PMID: 9467827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Verma S, Cam MC, McNeill JH.
Nutritional factors that can favorably influence the glucose/insulin system: vanadium.
J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Feb;17(1):11-8. Review.
PMID: 9477384 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH.
Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite.
Memtabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):667-73.
PMID: 11398143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Wang J, Yuen VG, McNeill JH.
Effect of vanadium on insulin and leptin in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Feb;218(1-2):93-6.
PMID: 11330843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yale JF, Vigeant C, Nardolillo C, Chu Q, Yu JZ, Shaver A, Posner BI.
In vivo effects of peroxovanadium compounds in BB rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 1995 Dec 6-20;153(1-2):181-90.
PMID: 8927037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yuan M, Yu B, Liang Y.
Effects of peroxovanadate complexes on reducing glycemia in diabetic rats and translocation of glucose transporter.
Chin Med J (Engl). 1997 Sep;110(9):715-9.
PMID: 9642333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yuen VG, Bhanot S, Battell ML, Orvig C, McNeill JH.
Chronic glucose-lowering effects of rosiglitazone and bis(ethylmaltolato)oxovanadium(IV) in ZDF rats.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;81(11):1049-55.
PMID: 14719040 [PubMed - in process]


arw Yuen VG, Orvig C, McNeill JH.
Effects of bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) are distinct from food restriction in STZ-diabetic rats.
Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 1):E30-5.
PMID: 9038848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yuen VG, Pederson RA, Dai S, Orvig C, McNeill JH.
Effects of low and high dose administration of bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) on fa/fa Zucker rats.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;74(9):1001-9.
PMID: 8960391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yuen VG, Orvig C, McNeill JH.
Comparison of the glucose-lowering properties of vanadyl sulfate and bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) following acute and chronic administration.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;73(1):55-64.
PMID: 7600453 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yuen VG, Orvig C, McNeill JH.
Glucose-lowering effects of a new organic vanadium complex, bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV).
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 Mar-Apr;71(3-4):263-9.
PMID: 8402390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yuen VG, Orvig C, Thompson KH, McNeill JH.
Improvement in cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following chronic oral administration of bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV).
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 Mar-Apr;71(3-4):270-6.
PMID: 8402391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


arw Yuen VG, Bhanot S, Battell ML, Orvig C, McNeill JH.
Chronic glucose-lowering effects of rosiglitazone and bis(ethylmaltolato)oxovanadium(IV) in ZDF rats.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;81(11):1049-55.
PMID: 14719040 [PubMed - in process]