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Pterostilbene
Overview
Pterostilbene is one of the many aromatic hydrocarbons called stillbenes that is found in the skins of red grapes and blueberries. It is more abundant in blueberries however. It is also a derivative of resvertrol, which is an antioxidant compound that is now a popular nutritional supplement that has become well known for it’s cardiovascular and cancer fighting benefits. Pterostibene was identified as a compound in red sandalwood a long ago and was later identified in blueberries and red grapes. The most recent studies done on this compound have brought more knowledge about it. A chemist named Agnes Rimando at ARS’s Natural Products Utilization Research Laboratory in Oxford, Mississippi began experimenting with it in 1992 and found that Pterostilbene is a fungicidal and has the ability to lower blood glucose in diabetics. Pterostilbene is found abundantly in blueberries and is also found red grape skins and in the bark of the Indian Kino tree, as well as red wine, sparkleberries, loganberries and cranberries.

In 2002 it was also discovered, through experimentation with mice, that pterostilbene is as effective at fighting cancer as resveratrol and that it is also a proven to be a powerful antioxidant. More studies are being done now to identify other benefits to be gained by it. The recent studies also found pterostilbene to be able to help lower bad cholesterol levels and prevent heart disease. In fact its ability to lower cholesterol is as powerful to that of ciprofibrate. Ciprofibrate is a prescription drug used to lower cholesterol and triglycerides but this prescription drug has negative side affects and some people can not take it.

In a recent study involving rats, pterostilbene was found to inhibit pre-cancerous tumor growths in the colon. It also inhibits the genes that are involved in inflammation that can cause colon cancer. Pterostilbene effects gene expression and when it is combined with resveratrol it can activate a large array of genes in whose job it is to prevent disease. It has been discovered now that many of the same genes which help give extension to life span are favorably affected when plant extracts like resveratrol and pterostilbene are taken. It supports healthy blood lipids and triglyceride levels and as such it is good for cardiovascular health. Also, as people age their cognitive abilities decline as a natural part of the aging process, but with the addition of such plant substances as pterostilbene in the diet, cognitive decline can be lessened or actually reversed. Another benefit to be gained from pterostilbene is the fact that it also lowers blood glucose and as such is a powerful antidiabetic. One study done on rats proved that it can lower blood sugar levels as well as metformin, which is another well known antidiabetic agent. Because of this finding the suggestion is that pterostilbene is even a more powerful and beneficial compound than resveratrol.

Blueberry plants and red and black wine grapes produce chemicals called phytoalexins, which pterostilbene is. The red and black wine grapes have more pterostilbene in them than other types of grapes. Also, pterostilbene is 60 to 100 times stronger than resveratrol as an antifungal agent. Resveratrol and pterostilbene act together to boost each others gene expression. If you want to reduce the number of fat cells and increase fat oxidization, lower blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and find protection from cancer, resveratrol with pterostilbene is best taken together as a daily nutritional supplement. You can find theses supplements online and at your local health food stores. Many older Americans are beginning to take ptestilbene to help ehance memory and brain function.

What is Pterostilbene?
Pterostilbene is a natural phytochemical found in small berries and has been clinically shown to promote normal blood glucose and cholesterol levels, assist the body to normalize blood pressure and control soft tissue inflammation, improve cognitive function, and enhance the genetic benefits of calorie restriction.

Where it is found
Pterostilbene is found in small amounts in blueberries and grapes, but the most cost effective source is from the bark and heartwood of a tree that grows in India and Sri Lanka (Pterocarpus marsupium or Indian Kino Tree).
 
Product related PDF file:  Pterostilbene Benefits
 
Pterostilbene for Blood Sugar and Lipid Metabolism
Extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for several thousand years for the treatment of diabetes. Modern day animal research on Pterocarpus marsupium helps support its traditional folk medicine use, showing it can:
arw Rejuvenate beta cells in the pancreas (the cells that produce insulin).
arw Prevent elevated blood sugar, triglycerides, and insulin resistance from a high fructose diet.
arw Lower weight, blood sugar, and inflammation in Type 2 diabetes.
arw Lower triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol in diet-induced hyperlipidemia.
 
In today’s marketplace extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium can be standardized for its most important biologically active compound, pterostilbene (pronounced “tero-STILL-bean”). This nutrient is a type of polyphenol known as a stilbenoid, as is resveratrol. Stilbenoids are very small molecules that are readily absorbed, wherein they participate in antioxidant systems, anti-inflammatory systems (lowering NF-kappaB and unfriendly nitric oxide), and can have profound regulatory impact on multiple gene signals. Pterostilbene has two methoxy and one hydroxyl group, whereas resveratrol has three hydroxyl groups. These small differences in an otherwise identical structure enable quite different function. For one thing this enables pterostilbene to be absorbed into cells easier and makes it slower to be cleared out of the body, compared to resveratrol. Pterostilbene excels as an antioxidant between cells (such as inflammatory tissue damage) whereas reseveratrol excels at protecting cells in the blood. Resveratrol specializes in activating the longevity gene SIRT1, whereas pterostilbene has a profound effect on the fat/lipid metabolizing gene PPAR (both nutrients activate many genes). Stilbenoids are synthesized by plants in response to infectious attack, making them excellent immune support nutrients. The unique structure of pterostilbene makes it 5-10 times as potent an anti-fungal as resveratrol

Atherosclerosis
The abnormal proliferation of cells within the walls of arteries takes place during the plaque formation process. An animal study shows that pterostilbene inhibited this undesirable process. The researchers concluded that “pterostilbene may be a potential anti-proliferative agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.”

An Anti-Cancer Nutrient
One of the great problems of being overweight is that it significantly boosts the risk for cancer including aggressive breast and prostate cancer. Not only does pterostilbene help support the return of normal metabolism, it is one of the most heavily researched anti-cancer compounds.

As a small molecule, pterostilbene has no problem gaining access into cancer cells. It appears to be a cancer cell’s worst nightmare. It damages a cancer cell’s membrane and DNA and induces death signals causing self-destruction. This was recently shown with studies of both breast and prostate cancer cells. In another recent breast cancer cell study, pterostilbene caused the energy-producing system within the cancer cell to malfunction and generate massive amounts of free radicals instead of energy, resulting in breast cancer cell death. Similar findings have now been demonstrated with pancreatic cancer cells. Pterostilbene has also been shown to inhibit colon cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, and skin cancer.

In a recent study with bladder cancer cells pterostilbene was shown for the first time to activate the autophagy process wherein a cell is commanded to eat itself, thereby inducing cell death. In normal health, autophagy is used to help keep a cell clean, which prevents cancer. It is amazing, that the intelligence to help healthy cells and help kill cancer cells exists, by important mechanisms like autophagy.

Pterostilbene is a nutrient you are sure to hear more about. It works by multiple mechanisms at the gene level to promote metabolic health and the risk of cancer.


Doses
50-150mg per day.

Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:When To Take/Types To Take
One capsule daily with or without food.

Research studies / References
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IM Kapetanovic et al (November 2010). "Pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and metabolic profile of resveratrol and its dimethylether analog, pterostilbene, in rats". Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2010. doi:10.1007/s00280-010-1525-4. PMID 21116625.
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CM Remsberg et al (February 2008). "Pharmacometrics of pterostilbene: preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activity". Phytother Res, 2008 Feb;22(2):169-79, 22 (2): 169–79. doi:10.1002/ptr.2277. PMID 17726731.
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P Ferrer et al (January 2005). "Association between pterostilbene and quercetin inhibits metastatic activity of B16 melanoma". Neoplasia, 2005 Jan;7(1):37-47, 7 (1): 37–47. PMC 1490314. PMID 15736313.
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Jeandet, P; Douillet-Breuil, AC; Bessis, R; Debord, S; Sbaghi, M; Adrian, M (2002). "Phytoalexins from the Vitaceae: biosynthesis, phytoalexin gene expression in transgenic plants, antifungal activity, and metabolism". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 50 (10): 2731–41. doi:10.1021/jf011429s. PMID 11982391.edit
arw
Gastaminza P, Whitten-Bauer C, Chisari FV (January 2010). "Unbiased probing of the entire hepatitis C virus life cycle identifies clinical compounds that target multiple aspects of the infection.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 5;107(1):291-6. Epub 2009 Dec 7 107 (1): 291–6. Bibcode 2010PNAS..107..291G. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912966107. PMC 2806752. PMID 19995961.
arw WebMD.com
arw Cholesterol.about.com
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a b Pari L, Satheesh MA (July 2006). "Effect of pterostilbene on hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin- and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats". Life Sciences 79 (7): 641–5. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2006.02.036. PMID 16616938.