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Mangosteen
Overview
Mangosteen is a tropical fruit. The fruit, fruit juice, rind, twig, and bark are used as medicine.
Mangosteen is used for many conditions, but so far, there isn't enough scientific evidence to determine whether or not it is effective for any of them.

Mangosteen is used for diarrhea, urinary tract infections (UTIs), gonorrhea, thrush, tuberculosis, menstrual disorders, cancer, osteoarthritis, and an intestinal infection called dysentery. It is also used for stimulating the immune system and improving mental health.


Some people apply mangosteen to the skin for eczema and other skin conditions.
Mangosteen is often eaten as a dessert fruit or made into jams. History reports that it was Queen Victoria’s favorite fruit. These days, mangosteen juice is becoming a popular “health drink.” It is usually sold under the name “xango juice.” Some marketers claim that xango juice can treat diarrhea, menstrual problems, urinary tract infections, tuberculosis, and a variety of other conditions. However, there is no reliable scientific evidence to support these claims.

What is Mangosteen?
Mangosteen is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia that is touted for its antioxidants, especially xanthones, a type of chemical in certain plants. Its fruit, including the rind and pulp, can be pureed together and is sometimes sold as a drink. Mangosteen juice products may also be mixed with other types of juice. Its rind may be dried and made into a powder, and substances are also extracted from its bark. Mangosteen products are also available in capsule and tablet form. They are sold in health food stores, on the Internet, and through individual independent distributors.

Where it is found?
Benefits / uses

Anti-aging - helps prevent aging
Anti-allergenic - helps prevent allergic reactions
Anti-arthritic – helps prevent arthritis
Anti-atherosclerotic - helps prevent the hardening of the arteries
Antibiotic - prevents or modulates bacterial infections
Anti-calculitic - helps prevent kidney stones
Anti-cataract - helps prevent cataracts
Antidepressant – helps with depression
Anti-diarrheal – helps with diarrhea
Anti-fatigue - helps relieve fatigue
Antifungal - prevents or modulates fungal infections
Anti-glaucomic - helps prevent glaucoma
Anti-Inflammatory – helps with inflammation
Anti-lipidemic - helps lower blood fat
Anti-neuralgic - helps in nerve pain
Anti-obesity - helps in weight loss
Anti-osteoporosis - helps prevent the loss of bone mass
Antioxidant-rich – rich in antioxidants
Anti-oxolytic - anti-anxiety
Anti-Parkinson – helps with Parkinson's disease
Anti-periodontic - helps prevent gum disease
Antipyretic - helps lower fever
Anti-tumor and cancer-preventive
Anti-vertigo - helps prevent dizziness
Antiviral - prevents or modulates viral infections
Cardio-protective - helps in the protection of the heart
Hypoglycemic - helps stabilize blood sugar
Hypotensive - helps lower blood pressure
Immunostimulant – helps the immune system fight infection
This exotic fruit, used in traditional medicine for centuries, contains some of the most potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-fungal compounds in nature.
Independent scientific research studies and clinical experience all show the remarkable health benefits of Mangosteen.

 
Best Form For Human Consumption
Mangosteen is available in capsule, tablet, beverage, and cream forms.

Doses
The typical dose is 500 mg by mouth twice a day. The beverages are dosed as 30 mL per day.

Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of mangosteen during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions
Mangosteen products have antioxidant activity and may interact with chemotherapeutic drugs such anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents. Patients taking antihistamines may note an additive affect with mangosteen.

Use should be avoided with hypersensitivity to any of the constituents in mangosteen. People with diabetes should be aware of the high sugar content in mangosteen juice. Theoretically, mangosteen may interfere with the action of certain chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation therapy.


Research studies / References
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Ramage CM, Sando L, Peace CP, Carroll BJ, Drew RA. Genetic diversity revealed in the apomictic fruit species Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen). Euphytica . 2004;136:1-10.
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Akao Y, Nakagawa Y, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y. Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen. Int J Mol Sci . 2008;9:355-370.
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Chin YW, Jung HA, Chai H, Keller WJ, Kinghorn AD. Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen). Phytochemistry . 2008;69(3):754-758.
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HerbalGram . Herbal supplement sales in United States show growth in all channels. 2008;78:60-63.
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Chairat M, Bremner JB, Chantrapromma K. Dyeing of cotton and silk yarn with the extracted dye from the fruit hulls of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana linn. Fibers Polym . 2007;8(6):613-619.
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Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathi B, Suresh G. Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives. J Nat Prod . 1997;60(5):519-524.
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Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch N, Phakhodee W, et al. Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) . 2003;51(7):857-859.
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Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, Gritsanapan W. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes . Fitoterapia . 2007;78(6):401-408.
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Ji X, Avula B, Khan IA. Quantitative and qualitative determination of six xanthones in Garcinia mangostana L. by LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal . 2007;43(4):1270-1276.
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Yu L, Zhao M, Yang B, Zhao Q, Jiang Y. Phenolics from hull of Garcinia mangostana fruit and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem . 2007;104(1):176-181.
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Mahabusarakam W, Wiriyachitra P, Taylor WC. Chemical constituents of Garcinia mangostana . J Nat Prod . 1987;50(3):474-478.
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Nilar, Harrison LJ. Xanthones from the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana . Phytochemistry . 2002;60(5):541-548.
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Nilar, Nguyen LH, Venkatraman G, Sim KY, Harrison LJ. Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana . Phytochemistry . 2005;66(14):1718-1723.
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Fu C, Loo AE, Chia FP, Huang D. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from mangosteen pericarps. J Agric Food Chem . 2007;55(19):7689-7694.
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Weecharangsan W, Opanasopit P, Sukma M, Ngawhirunpat T, Sotanaphun U, Siripong P. Antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana Linn.). Med Princ Pract . 2006;15(4):281-287.
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Okonogi S, Duangrat C, Anuchpreeda S, Tachakittirungrod S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Comparison of antioxidant capacites and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peels. Food Chem . 2007;103(3):839-846.
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Patthamakanokporn O, Puwastien P, Nitithamyong A, Sirichakwal PP. Changes of antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage of selected fruits. J Food Compost Anal . 2008;21(3):241-248.
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Leontowicz M, Leontowicz H, Drzewiecki J, Jastrzebski Z, Haruenkit R, Poovarodom S. Two exotic fruits positively affect rats plasma composition. Food Chem . 2007;102(1):192-200.
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Hsu J, Skover G, Goldman MP. Evaluating the efficacy in improving facial photodamage with a mixture of topical antioxidants. Drugs in Dermatol . 2007;6(11):1141-1148.
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Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana . Planta Med . 1996;62(5):471-472.
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Nakatani K, Atsumi M, Arakawa T, et al. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull . 2002;25(9):1137-1141.
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Chairungsrilerd N, Furukawa K, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Pharmacological properties of alpha-mangostin, a novel histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol . 1996;314(3):351-356.
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Furukawa K, Chairungsrilerd N, Ohta T, Nozoe S, Ohizumi Y. Novel types of receptor antagonists from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana .[in Japanese]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi . 1997;110 (suppl) 1:153P-158P.
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Itoh T, Ohguchi K, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y, Akao Y. Inhibitory effect of xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cell degranulation. Bioorg Med Chem . 2008;16(8):4500-4508.
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Nakatani K, Nakahata N, Arakawa T, Yasuda H, Ohizumi Y. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol . 2002;63(1):73-79.
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Nakatani K, Yamakuni T, Kondo N, et al. Gamma-mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol Pharmacol . 2004;66(3):667-674.
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Chen LG, Yang LL, Wang CC. Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana . Food Chem Toxicol . 2008;46(2):688-693.
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Wang CC, Chen LG, Lin LH, Yang LL. Inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors of Chinese herbs IV: Garcinia mangostana . American Chemical Society . 2004;AN 2004:655096.
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Ee GCL, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M, Sukari MA, Lee HL. Gamma-mangostin and rubraxanthone, two potential lead compounds for anti-cancer activity against CEM-SS cell line. Nat Prod Sci.
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Ee GC, Daud S, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M. Garcinia mangostana : a source of potential anti-cancer lead compounds against CEM-SS cell line. J Asian Nat Prod Res . 2008;10(5-6):475-479.
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Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med . 2002;68(11):975-979.
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Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, et al. Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod . 2003;66(8):1124-1127.
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Chiang LC, Cheng HW, Liu MC, Chiang W, Chun-Ching Lin CC. In vitro evaluation of antileukemic activity of 17 commonly used fruits and vegetables in Taiwan. Lebensm Wiss Technol . 2004;37(5):539-544.
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Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Yi H, et al. Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg Med Chem . 2004;12(22):5799-5806.
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Nakagawa Y, Iinuma M, Naoe T, Nozawa Y, Akao Y. Characterized mechanism of alpha-mangostin-induced cell death: caspase-independent apoptosis with release of endonuclease-G from mitochondria and increased miR-143 expression in human colorectal cancer DLD-1 cells. Bioorg Med Chem . 2007;15(16):5620-5628.
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Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Kaslungka S, Luanratana O, Pongpan N, Neungton N. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol . 2004;90(1):161-166.
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Suksamrarn S, Komutiban O, Ratananukul P, Chimnoi N, Lartpornmatulee N, Suksamrarn A. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) . 2006;54(3):301-305.
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Nabandith V, Suzui M, Morioka T, et al. Inhibitory effects of crude alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, on two different categories of colon preneoplastic lesions induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev . 2004;5(4):433-438.
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Mahabusarakam W, Phongpaichit S, Wiriyachitra P. Screening of antifungal activity of chemicals from Garcinia mangostana . Warasan Songkhia Nakkharin . 1983;5(4):341-342.
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Mahabusarakam W, Wiriyachitra P, Phongpaichit S. Antimicrobial activities of chemical constituents from Garcinia mangostana Linn. J Sci Soc Thailand . 1986;12(4):239-243