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L Carnosine
Overview

Carnosine is a protein building block that is naturally produced in the body. It is concentrated in muscles when they are working, and it is also found in the heart, brain, and many other parts of the body. Carnosine helps prevent aging and preventing or treating complications of diabetes such as nerve damage, eye disorders (cataracts), and kidney problems. Carnosine is important for many normal body functions including the proper function and development of the muscles, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and many other organs. There is some interest in using carnosine to prevent aging because it seems to interfere with certain chemicals that might play a role in the aging process.

What is Carnosine?

L_Carnosine
(2S)-2-[(3-Amino-1-oxopropyl)amino]-3-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid
 

Carnosine is a small peptide that contains two amino acids, beta- alanine and histidine. It is found in relatively high concentrations in several body tissues, most notably in skeletal muscles, heart muscles, and the brain.

How is it Made?
L-Carnosine is a naturally occurring substance found in many parts of the human body, as well as the food we eat.

Where is it Found?
Dietary sources of carnosine include high-protein meats such as poultry, fish, pork and beef. Lower concentrations of carnosine exist in other protein-rich foods such as eggs and milk.

 
Product related PDF file
Anti-Aging wih Carnosine
Carnosine
L-Carnosine Characterestics
Role of L-Carnosine
 
Benefits / Uses
Carnosine nutrient supplements have been very popular among body-builders and athletes mainly for improving muscular fatigue. Based on research carnosine in now being considered one of the most important supplements for longevity. The exact biological role of carnosine is not completely understood but studies indicate that it possesses strong and specific antioxidant properties, protects against radiation damage, improves heart function, and promotes the recovery from injuries. Additional suggested benefits of carnosine include its role as a neurotransmitter (chemical messenger in the nervous system), modulator of enzyme activities, and chelator of heavy metals (i.e., a substance that binds heavy metals, possibly reducing their toxicity to the body). Although carnosine's benefits have not been thoroughly researched, based on preliminary studies, it has also been shown that carnosine may also be useful to:
arw Boost immunity and reduce inflammation


arw Produce anticancer effects on the body


arw Promote wound healing, protect against radiation damage and reverse post-radiation syndrome. Laboratory animals treated with carnosine were found to have faster and better wound healing rates compared to controls. This has potential applications for treating burns, wounds following surgery, or during nutritional preparation for surgery.


arw Protect against the formation of gastric ulcers, and help heal existing ulcers


arw Assist in helping to eradicate Helicobacter pylori, an organism that has been linked to peptic ulcer and stomach cancer.


arw Reduce or prevent cell damage caused by beta amyloid, the substance found in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients
arw Protect against cataract formation


arw Reduce the effects of glucose damage and protein oxidation


arw Inhibit (or reverse) glycosylation and therefore slow the damaging - and pro-aging - effects of carbohydrate consumption


arw Increase muscle strength and endurance


arw Improve overall appearance
 

Over the years carnosine has been believed to be a powerful anti-aging nutrient and as one of the nutrients for longevity. However, the exact biological role of carnosine is not well understood, but many studies suggest that it harbors strong and specific antioxidant properties, including amazing anti-aging actions. Carnosine also possesses other suggested roles such as a modulator of enzyme activities and chelator of heavy metals ((i.e., a substance that binds heavy metals, possibly reducing their toxicity to the body). In addition, it appears to act as a neurotransmitter (chemical messenger in the nervous system).
L-Carnosine is touted as the "anti aging nutrient" because of its favorable effects on inhibiting the formation of age-inducing substances called "advanced glycation end products" (AGEs). Glycosylation is the oxidation of proteins which occur when sugar molecules attach to proteins and block their normal metabolic function resulting in cross-linking of proteins. In other words, AGEs are abnormal, cross-linked and oxidized proteins which are implicated in loss of cell function, genome integrity and accelerated aging. Studies suggest that carnosine protects DNA and proteins from cross-linking. Moreover, it also binds to already formed AGEs and inactivates them.
Numerous animal studies indicate carnosine protects against radiation damage, improves heart function, and promotes wound healing. It is thought that this unique di-peptide is the water-soluble counterpart to vitamin E in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. In addition, laboratory studies have shown that it can rejuvenate senescent cells (the end of the life cycle of dividing cells) thus restoring and extending cellular normal life span.

Even though the benefits of L-Carnosine have not been thoroughly researched, based on preliminary studies it may be useful to patients suffering from diabetes, cataracts, kidney failure, and neuropathy. L- Carnosine may also help to slow down the aging of skin, minimizing wrinkles and the breakdown of skin elasticity. It may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis, joint inflammation and cataract formation. Carnosine has shown to reduce and prevent cell damage caused by beta amyloid, a substance found in the brain of Alzheimer sufferers.
In addition, it appears to have the ability to help eradicate the bacterium (Helicobacter pylori), an organism linked to peptic ulcer and even stomach cancer. As such, carnosine may provide significant protection and healing of both gastric and peptic ulcers.

Dosage
Dietary sources of carnosine include high-protein meats such as poultry, fish, pork and beef. Lower concentrations of carnosine exist in other protein-rich foods such as eggs and milk.

Possible Side-Effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
High levels of carnosine are nontoxic, although not recommended. Muscle twitching is one side-effect with dosages over 600 mg. To date no adverse side-effects have been reported. Some short-term results show it could possibly create alertness but also unsound sleep, but only when high doses are administered. There are possible allergic reactions to carnosine as it stimulates histamines in the body; reactions include rashes and runny noses.

Special Precautions & Warnings:
Not enough is known about the use of carnosine during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Research Studies / References

arw "C9625 L-Carnosine '99%, crystalline". Sigma-Aldrich. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/search/ProductDetail/SIGMA/C9625.


arw Aruoma OI, Laughton MJ, Halliwell B (December 1989). "Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine: could they act as antioxidants in vivo?". The Biochemical Journal 264 (3): 863–9. PMID 2559719.


arw Choi SY, Kwon HY, Kwon OB, Kang JH (November 1999). "Hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase fragmentation: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1472 (3): 651–7. doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(99)00189-0. Klebanov GI, Teselkin YuO, Babenkova IV, et al. (1998). "Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions". Membrane & Cell Biology 12 (1): 89–99. PMID 9829262.


arw Babizhayev MA, Seguin MC, Gueyne J, Evstigneeva RP, Ageyeva EA, Zheltukhina GA (December 1994). "L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities". The Biochemical Journal 304 (2): 509–16.


arw Chan KM, Decker EA (1994). "Endogenous skeletal muscle antioxidants". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 34 (4): 403–26. doi:10.1080/10408399409527669. PMID 7945896.


arw Kohen R, Yamamoto Y, Cundy KC, Ames BN (May 1988). "Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85 (9): 3175–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.9.3175. PMID 3362866.


arw Reddy VP, Garrett MR, Perry G, Smith MA (May 2005). "Carnosine: a versatile antioxidant and antiglycating agent". Science of Aging Knowledge Environment 2005 (18): pe12. doi:10.1126/sageke.2005.18.pe12. PMID 15872311.


arw Rashid I, van Reyk DM, Davies MJ (March 2007). "Carnosine and its constituents inhibit glycation of low-density lipoproteins that promotes foam cell formation in vitro". FEBS Letters 581 (5): 1067–70. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.01.082. PMID 17316626.


arw Hipkiss AR (May 2006). "Does chronic glycolysis accelerate aging? Could this explain how dietary restriction works?". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1067: 361–8. doi:10.1196/annals.1354.051. PMID 16804012.


arw Janssen B, Hohenadel D, Brinkkoetter P, et al. (August 2005). "Carnosine as a protective factor in diabetic nephropathy: association with a leucine repeat of the carnosinase gene CNDP1". Diabetes 54 (8): 2320–7. doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.8.2320. PMID 16046297.


arw http://www.antiaging-systems.com/extract/kyriazis.htm


arw http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735523 J Cosmet Dermatol. 2009 Sep;8(3):228-33. Efficacy of anti-aging products for periorbital wrinkles as measured by 3-D imaging


arw Attanasio F, Cataldo S, Fisichella S, et al. (July 2009). "Protective effects of L- and D-carnosine on alpha-crystallin amyloid fibril formation: implications for cataract disease". Biochemistry 48 (27): 6522–31. doi:10.1021/bi900343n. PMID 19441807.


arw Amoaku, Winfried (August 6, 2008). "N-Acetyl Carnosine for Cataracts". Royal College of Ophthalmologists. http://www.rcophth.ac.uk/docs/publications/published-guidelines/N_ACETYL-CARNOSINE_FOR_CATARACTS.pdf.


arw Chez MG, Buchanan CP, Aimonovitch MC, et al. (November 2002). "Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders". Journal of Child Neurology 17 (11): 833–7. doi:10.1177/08830738020170111501. PMID 12585724.


arw Levy SE, Hyman SL (2005). "Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders". Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 11 (2): 131–42. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20062. PMID 15977319.


arw Tomonaga, Shozu, et al. (August 6, 2008). "Effect of central administration of carnosine and its constituents on behaviors in chicks". Royal College of Ophthalmologists. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6SYT-4BP9PC3-1/2/bc6bfe64185c28814fb02b218a8cfa16.


arw Renner C, Zemitzsch N, Fuchs B, et al. (2010). "Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model". Molecular Cancer 9: 2. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-9-2. PMID 20053283.


arw Ozel Turkcu U, Bilgihan A, Biberoglu G, Mertoglu Caglar O (January 2010). "Carnosine supplementation protects rat brain tissue against ethanol-induced oxidative stress". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 339 (1-2): 55–61. doi:10.1007/s11010-009-0369-x. PMID 20047045.


arw Liu WH, Liu TC, Yin MC (May 2008). "Beneficial effects of histidine and carnosine on ethanol-induced chronic liver injury". Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (5): 1503–9. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.12.013. PMID 18222027.


arw Min J, Senut MC, Rajanikant K, et al. (October 2008). "Differential neuroprotective effects of carnosine, anserine, and N-acetyl carnosine against permanent focal ischemia". Journal of Neuroscience Research 86 (13): 2984–91. doi:10.1002/jnr.21744. PMID 18543335.


arw McFarlan GA.; Holliday R. (1994). "Retardation of the senescence of cultured human fibroblasts by carnosine". Exp. Cell Res. 212 (2): 167–175. doi:10.1006/excr.1994.1132. PMID 8187813.


arw Shao L; Li QH, Tan Z (2004). "L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts.". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 324 (2): 931–936. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.136. PMID 15474517.


arw http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11327115 Telomerase activation, cellular immortalization and cancer, Ann Med. 2001 Mar;33(2):123-9