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L Histidine
Overview

L-Histidine is an essential amino acid that cannot be formed by other nutrients, and must be in the diet to be available to the body. Most often recognized as a precursor to the allergy symptom producing hormone histamine, both histidine and histamine have essential roles in the body beyond tormenting allergy sufferers. Histamine is well known for its role in stimulating the inflammatory response of skin and mucous membranes such as those found in the nose - this action is essential in the protection of these barriers during infection. Histamine also stimulates the secretion of the digestive enzyme gastrin. Without adequate histamine production healthy digestion can become impaired. Without adequate L-histidine stores, the body cannot maintain adequate histamine levels. Less well known is that L-histidine is required by the body to regulate and utilize essential trace minerals such as copper, zinc, iron, manganese and molybdenum.
L-histidine is essential in forming many metal bearing enzymes and compounds, examples being the antioxidant super oxide dismutase, the iron storage protein ferritin, the iron uptake regulation protein -FUR, the copper storage and iron metabolism cofactor ceruloplasmin, red blood cell hemoglobin, the toxic metal storage protein metallothionein, and the cysteine regulating enzyme cysteine dioxygenase - to name but a few important enzymes dependent on L-histidine being available for formation and function.

Persons contaminated with heavy metals, suffering from chronic seasonal allergies, or following a low histidine diet are most susceptible to body depletion of adequate histidine stores - creating the possibility of mineral-enzyme deficiencies and dysregulation. Depletion of body stores of L-histidine might be best recognized by dysfunction of L-histidine dependent compounds, and low blood plasma concentrations of the amino acid. High blood serum levels of iron have been experimentally caused in humans by a diet low in L-Histidine.

Intolerance of sulfur bearing foods like garlic and broccoli along with elevated blood plasma L-cysteine levels indicate inactivation of the L-Histidine and iron dependent enzyme cysteine dioxygenase.As with most free form amino acids, L-histidine absorption is best when taken between meals without food and without accompanying minerals.

What is Histidine ?
L-histidine is an essential amino acid. Most of our histidine must come from our diets, but small amounts can be synthesized from glutamic acid & carnosine. Histidine helps support normal healthy inflammatory response. It helps support lubricating fluid in the joints.

Histidine can convert to histamine, which is a major neurotransmitter in your brain & throughout parts of your nervous system. However, histidine intake does not always increase brain histamine, Low brain histamine levels are associated with hyperactivity, mania, paranoia, hallucinations, & abnormal thoughts. Many brain functions of histamine are poorly understood but it is thought to participate in the secretion of 2 hormones, (prolactin & antidiuretic). It is thought to aid temperature regulation & be involved in the control of automatic nerve response in the central nervous system.

Vitamin E deficiency will cause the depletion of histidine from muscles. Histidine is involved with the regulation of zinc levels in your body. If zinc is excessive it will lower histidine; if histidine is excessive it will decrease zinc levels. But appropriate levels of histidine enhance zinc levels.

Histidine:

arw Supports the body's natural wound healing


arw Is essential for tissue growth & health


arw Is important for red blood cell health


arw Helps store glucose in your liver

Where it is found
Histidine can be obtained in a variety of foods, including beans, brewer's yeast, brown rice bran, caseinate, dairy products, eggs, fish, lactalbumin, legumes, meat, nuts, seafood, seeds, soy, whey, whole grains. Dairy, meat and poultry, and fish are good sources of histidine.

Benefits / uses
L- histidine is most often recognized as a precursor to the allergy symptom producing hormone histamine, both histidine and histamine have essential roles in our biochemistry. Histamine is well known for its role in stimulating the inflammatory response of skin and mucous membranes such as those that we experience when we have cold or flu symptoms. The inflammatory action of histamine is essential for the protection of these barriers during an acute infection.

L-histidine is required by the body to regulate and utilize the following processes:

arw L-histidine is essential in forming many metal bearing enzymes and compounds, examples being the red blood cell hemoglobin, antioxidant super oxide dismutase, the iron uptake regulation protein -FUR, the iron storage protein ferritin, the copper storage and iron metabolism cofactor ceruloplasmin, and important enzymes dependent on L-histidine being available for formation and function. Metals such as copper, zinc, and nickel are transported by binding with L-histidine, and such binding appears essential for rapid excretion of excess metal. Persons contaminated with heavy metals, suffering from chronic seasonal allergies, or following a low histidine diet are most susceptible to body depletion of adequate histidine stores - creating the possibility of mineral-enzyme deficiencies.


arw L-cysteine and L-histidine is needed to synthesized metallothionein a molecule designed to store metals in such a way as to prevent uncontrolled oxidation reactions. High blood serum levels of iron have been experimentally caused in humans by a diet low in L-Histidine. Enhances wound healing, which is essential for tissue growth and repair.


arw The amino acid is important for red blood cell health. Deficiency will cause decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, ultimately leading to anemia. Histamine also stimulates the secretion of the digestive enzyme gastrin. Without adequate histamine production healthy digestion can become impaired as Histidine has anti-inflammatory properties. It is the only amino acid found to be consistently low in the blood and lubricating fluids of those with rheumatoid arthritis.


arw Improve the sexual response in woman (L-Histidine is subsequently responsible for triggering an orgasm or "the big sneeze")


arw Essential for tissue growth and repair.

Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
There are no known signs of toxicity from histidine. Large doses of histidine can cause premature ejaculation, reduces levels of zinc and possibly trigger an allergic or asthmatic reaction (due to increases in histamine). Long-term supplementation with Histidine may give rise to a copper deficiency and raise blood cholesterol levels. L-histidine is generally well tolerated.

Research studies / References

arw IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc. http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/AminoAcid/. Retrieved 2007-05-17.


arw J D Kopple and M E Swendseid (May 1975). "Evidence that histidine is an essential amino acid in normal and chronically uremic man.". J Clin Invest. 55 (5): 881-891. doi:10.1172/JCI108016. PMC 301830. PMID 1123426. http://www.jci.org/articles/view/108016.


arw MROZEK Agnieszka, KAROLAK-WOJCIECHOWSKA Janina, KIEC-KONONOWICZ Katarzyna (August 2003). "Five-membered heterocycles. Part III. Aromaticity of 1,3-imidazole in 5+n hetero-bicyclic molecules". Journal of Molecular Structure 655 (3): 397-403. doi:10.1016/S0022-2860(03)00282-5.


arw Lijun Wang,, Na Sun,, Simon Terzyan,, Xuejun Zhang, and, David R. Benson. A Histidine/Tryptophan -Stacking Interaction Stabilizes the Heme-Independent Folding Core of Microsomal Apocytochrome b5 Relative to that of Mitochondrial Apocytochrome b5. Biochemistry 2006 45 (46), 13750-13759


arw Robert H. Blessing, Edward L. McGandy. Base stacking and hydrogen bonding in crystals of imidazolium dihydrogen orthophosphate. Journal of the American Chemical Society 1972 94 (11), 4034-4035.


arw Katoh R. Absorption Spectra of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids. Chemistry Letters. Vol. 36 (2007) , No. 10 p.1256.


arw AR Goldfarb, LJ Saidel, E Mosovich. THE ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF PROTEINS. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1951, p.397-404.


arw Roberts, John D. (2000). ABCs of FT-NMR. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. pp. 258-259. ISBN 978-1-891389-18-4. http://www.uscibooks.com/.


arw Fahey RC (2001). "Novel thiols of prokaryotes". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 333-56. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.333. PMID 11544359.


arw Freeman, Rm; Taylor, Pr (Apr 1977). "Influence of histidine administration on zinc metabolism in the rat." (Free full text). The American journal of clinical nutrition 30 (4): 523-7. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 851080. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=851080.


arw Wensink, J; Van, Den, Hamer, Cj (Jul 1988). "Effect of excess dietary histidine on rate of turnover of 65Zn in brain of rat.". Biological trace element research 16 (2): 137-50. doi:10.1007/BF02797098. PMID 2484542.