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Grape Seed Extract
Overview
Grapes have been heralded for their medicinal and nutritional value for thousands of years. Egyptians ate grapes at least 6,000 years ago, and several ancient Greek philosophers praised the healing power of grapes -- usually in the form of wine. European folk healers made an ointment from the sap of grapevines to treat skin and eye diseases. Grape leaves were used to stop bleeding, inflammation, and pain, such as the kind brought on by hemorrhoids. Unripe grapes were used to treat sore throats and dried grapes (raisins) were used for constipation and thirst. Round, ripe, sweet grapes were used to treat a range of health problems including cancer, cholera, smallpox, nausea, eye infections, and skin, kidney, and liver diseases.

But grapes -- or the chemicals within them, especially oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs) -- have been touted as powerful antioxidants. Some people believe they could help treat a number of conditions, from heart disease to cancer to aging skin, although scientific evidence is mostly lacking for those conditions. However, there is good evidence that grape seed extract can help treat chronic venous insufficiency and edema.

A study of healthy volunteers found that taking grape seed extract did substantially increase levels of antioxidants in their blood. Antioxidants are substances that destroy free radicals -- harmful compounds in the body that damage DNA (genetic material) and even cause cell death. Free radicals are believed to contribute to aging as well as the development of a number of health problems, including heart disease and cancer.

What is Grape Seed Extract ?
Grape Seed Extract (GSE) is a natural plant constituent (bioflavonoid) which strengthens and protects living tissue. The OPC1 components in GSE are 50 times stronger than Vitamin E and 20 times stronger than Vitamin C. Grape Seed Extract is an antiallergenic, antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. It strengthens blood vessels, improves skin, and aids in circulation.

As we age, our bodies produce less antioxidants to combat the ongoing destruction caused by free radicals2. This increases our risk of developing serious health problems. Grape Seed Extract is prescribed by doctors in several European countries for the prevention and treatment of a variety of health problems including cardiovascular disease, varicose veins, water retention, collagen damage and arthritis. Because it is used pharmaceutically, it has undergone a tremendous amount of testing. In the United States it is considered to be a dietary supplement, and may be purchased without a prescription. Grape Seed Extract is an extraordinarily safe and effective nutritional supplement.

Grape Seed Extract contains natural bioflavonoids called proanthocyanidins which help strengthen and protect cell membranes from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Catechins, components of Grape Seed Extract, help reduce allergic responses by inhibiting enzymes involved in the formation of histamine (helping reduce symptoms of allergies and excess histamine in the stomach which may lead to further stomach problems).

Grape Seed Extract provides cardiovascular protection by preventing oxidation of lipoproteins (LDL), making them less likely to stick to blood-vessel walls. It also makes the linings of the arteries more resistant to damage and helps control excessive clotting. GSE strengthens the capillaries ensuring a good supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain and throughout the body. It also affects enzymes that influence blood-fluid balances and therefore may be helpful in lowering blood pressure.

By protecting and enhancing Vitamins A and C, GSE may also aid in the reduction of wrinkles and vision problems. Recently, researchers discovered that Grape Seed Extract can help to stimulate healthy hair growth by defeating the hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT) that stops the hair follicle growth cycle. [GSE & MSM are a great combination for healthy hair.]

How it is made
Grape seed extract is prepared from the seed of grapes. It is available in capsule and tablet forms.
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Benefits / uses
Today, standardized extracts of grape seed may be used to treat a range of health problems related to free radical damage, including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Some studies -- mostly in animals -- support these uses.

Flavonoids found in red wine may help to protect the heart by lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol. The so-called "French paradox" is the belief that drinking wine protects people living in France from developing heart disease at the high rates seen in people living in the United States.

Drinking alcohol to protect against heart disease is not advocated by the American Heart Association and other organizations because of the potential for addiction and other serious problems, such as car accidents and the increased risk of hypertension, liver disease, breast cancer, and weight gain. If you do drink red wine, you should have no more than 2 glasses (20 g ethanol) per day if you are a man, and no more than one if you are a woman.

Chronic venous insufficiency
In chronic venous insufficiency, blood pools in the legs, causing pain, swelling, fatigue, and visible veins. A number of high-quality studies have shown that OPCs from grape seed can reduce symptoms.

Edema
Edema -- swelling caused by surgery or an injury -- seems to go away faster when people take grape seed extract. Edema is common after breast cancer surgery, and one double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that breast cancer patients who took 600 mg of grape seed extract daily after surgery for six months had less edema and pain than those who took placebo. Another study found that people who took grape seed extract after experiencing a sports injury had less swelling than those who took placebo.

High cholesterol
Two preliminary studies showed promising results. A study of 40 people with high cholesterol looked at whether taking grape seed extract, chromium, a combination of both, or placebo for 2 months would lower cholesterol. The combination of grape seed extract and chromium was more effective than either grape seed alone or placebo in lowering total and LDL ("bad") cholesterol.

Another study looked at the effects of a proprietary grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation (the breakdown of fats in the blood) in a group of heavy smokers. Twenty-four healthy male smokers, (aged 50 years or greater) took either placebo or 2 capsules (75 mg of a grape procyanidin extracts and soy-phosphatidalcholine), twice daily for 4 weeks. "Bad" LDL cholesterol levels were lower in those taking the grape seed supplement than those taking placebo.

High blood pressure
Grape seed extract might help treat hypertension or high blood pressure. Antioxidants, like the ones found in grape seed, help protect blood vessels from damage. Damaged blood vessels can lead to higher blood pressure. A grape seed extract substantially reduced blood pressure.

Cancer
Studies have found that grape seed extracts may prevent the growth of breast, stomach, colon, prostate, and lung cancer cells in test tubes. Antioxidants, such as those found in grape seed extract, are thought to reduce the risk of developing cancer. Grape seed extract may also help prevent damage to human liver cells caused by chemotherapy medications. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before combining antioxidants with any chemotherapy drugs to make sure they interact safely together.

Other conditions
Grape seed extract is sometimes suggested for the following:
Diabetes (improving blood sugar control)
Improving night vision
Protecting collagen and elastin in skin (anti-aging)
Treating hemorrhoids


Doses
Pediatric
Grape seed extracts are not recommended for children. Whole grapes, however, make a healthy and safe snack for children.

Adult
To protect against free radical damage (oxidation), take 25 - 150 mg of a standardized extract (40 - 80% proanthocyanidins or 95% OPC value), 1 - 3 times daily.

Chronic venous insufficiency: 150 - 300 mg daily
Edema: 200 - 400 mg daily for 10 - 30 days
Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:

Precautions:
The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, contain components that can trigger side effects and interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, herbs should be taken with care, under the supervision of a health care provider qualified in the field of botanical medicine.
At the recommended dosage, grape seed is considered safe for up to 12 weeks. However, pregnant or breastfeeding women should not take grape seed supplements.


Possible Interactions:
There are no known scientific reports of interactions between grape seed and conventional medications. However, the OPCs in grape seed extract may interact with the following:

Anticoagulants (blood thinners) -- Grape seed extract may act as a blood-thinner, and could increase the risk of bleeding if taken with other blood-thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin). If you are taking blood thinning medications or have bleeding disorders, ask your doctor before taking grape seed extract.


When To Take/Types To Take
Grape seed Extract capsule/ tablet are best to be taken with meals.

Research studies / References
arw Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, et al. (Feb-Mar 2003). "Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Mutat Res. 523-524: 87-97. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00324-X. PMID 12628506.


arw http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S002751070200324X.


arw Vitseva O, Varghese S, Chakrabarti S, Folts JD, Freedman JE (October 2005). "Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates". J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 46 (4): 445-51. doi:10.1097/01.fjc.0000176727.67066.1c. PMID 16160595. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0160-2446&volume=46&issue=4&spage=445.


arw Kundu JK, Surh YJ (October 2008). "Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of resveratrol: mechanistic perspectives". Cancer Lett. 269 (2): 243-61. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.057. PMID 18550275.


arw BBC news - December 2008 - Grape extract kills cancer cells


arw Nair MP, Kandaswami C, Mahajan S, et al. (2002). "Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV-1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells". Biol Res. 35 (3-4): 421-31. doi:10.4067/S0716-97602002000300016. PMID 12462994.


arw Khanna S, Venojarvi M, Roy S, et al. (October 2002). "Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins". Free Radic Biol Med. 33 (8): 1089-96. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00999-1. PMID 12374620.


arw http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0891584902009991.


arw Smullen J, Koutsou GA, Foster HA, Zumbé A, Storey DM (2007). "The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans". Caries Res. 41 (5): 342-9. doi:10.1159/000104791. PMID 17713333.


arw Yahara N, Tofani I, Maki K, Kojima K, Kojima Y, Kimura M (June 2005). "Mechanical assessment of effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on tibial bone diaphysis in rats". J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 5 (2): 162-9. PMID 15951633.


arw http://www.ismni.org/jmni/pdf/20/10YAHARA.pdf.


arw Katiyar SK (June 2008). "Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system". Mol Nutr Food Res. 52 Suppl 1: S71-6. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700198. PMC 2562900. PMID 18384090.


arw Baliga MS, Katiyar SK (February 2006). "Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals". Photochem Photobiol Sci. 5 (2): 243-53. doi:10.1039/b505311k. PMID 16465310.


arw University of Maryland Medical Center - Grape Seed


arw Search results for grape seed extracts, ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the US National Institutes of Health


arw Ray S, Bagchi D, Lim PM, et al. (2001). "Acute and long-term safety evaluation of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 109 (3-4): 165-97. PMID 11758648.


arw Grape Seed Extract, Herbs at a Glance, US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine


arw Brooker S, Martin S, Pearson A, et al. (April 2006). "Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration". Radiother Oncol. 79 (1): 45-51.doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2006.02.008. PMID 16546280.


arw Shanmuganayagam D, Beahm MR, Osman HE, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Folts JD (1 December 2002). "Grape seed and grape skin extracts elicit a greater antiplatelet effect when used in combination than when used individually in dogs and humans". J Nutr.n 132 (12): 3592-8. PMID 12468593. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12468593.


arw Ikuko Kijima, et al. (June 2006). "Grape Seed Extract Is an Aromatase Inhibitor and a Suppressor of Aromatase Expression". Cancer res. 66 (11): 5960-5967. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0053. PMID16740737.http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/11/5960/F4.expansion.